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The Athletes Education section provides World Dodgeball Athletes with guidance and support required to ensure that we continue to “Play True”.


We believe that athlete education is crucial to maintaining clean Dodgeball competition across the World. 


We will continue to develop new innovative resources for our athletes to enable more productive and efficient ways of learning about Anti Doping. 


President of World Dodgeball, Tom Hickson 

What is doping?

Doping is not just a positive test showing the presence of a prohibited substance in an athlete’s urine sample. Doping is defined as the occurrence of one or more of the 11 Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs) outlined in the World Anti-Doping Code and [ADO] Anti-Doping Rules [add link to ADR]. These are:


  1. Presence of a prohibited substance, its metabolites or markers in an athlete’s sample

  2. Use or attempted use of a prohibited substance or method by an athlete

  3. Refusing, evading or failing to submit to sample collection by an athlete

  4. Failure to file whereabouts information and/or missed tests by an athlete 

  5. Tampering or attempted tampering with the doping control process by an athlete or other person

  6. Possession of a prohibited substance or method by an athlete or athlete support personnel 

  7. Trafficking or attempted trafficking of a prohibited substance or method by an athlete or other person

  8. Administering or attempting to administer a prohibited substance or method to an athlete

  9. Complicity or attempted complicity in an ADRV by an athlete or other person

  10. Prohibited Association by an athlete or other person with a sanctioned athlete support personnel

  11. Acts to discourage or retaliate against reporting to authorities


You could choose to copy paste the table listing the ADRVs found in the document At-a-Glance: Anti-Doping Overview | World Anti Doping Agency ( (p.3) or in the Athlete Guide to the 2021 Code (p. 20-21), available on ADEL.


Why is doping in sport prohibited?

The use of doping substances or doping methods to enhance performance is fundamentally wrong and is detrimental to the overall spirit of sport. Drug misuse can be harmful to an athlete's health and to other athletes competing in the sport. It severely damages the integrity, image, and value of sport, whether or not the motivation to use drugs is to improve performance. To achieve integrity and fairness in sport, a commitment to clean sport is critical.



What does ‘Strict Liability’ mean?

  • The principle of strict liability applies to all athletes who compete in any sport with an anti-doping program. It means that athletes are responsible for any prohibited substance, or its metabolites or markers found to be present in their urine and/or blood sample collected during doping control, regardless of whether the athlete intentionally or unintentionally used a prohibited substance or method. Therefore, it is important to remember that it is each and every athlete’s ultimate responsibility to know what enters their body.


  • The rule which provides that principle, under Code Article 2.1 and Article 2.2, states that it is not necessary that intent, fault, negligence, or knowing use on the athlete’s part be demonstrated by the Anti-Doping Organization to establish an anti-doping rule violation.


Why is doping dangerous?

Doping can result in severe health consequences but also comes with sport, social, financial and legal consequences. For an athlete, doping could spell the end of their sporting career, reputation, and prospects both in and out of sport. 

Sport Consequences

The sanctions for an Anti-Doping Rule Violation (ADRV) can include:

  • Provisional Suspension. The athlete or other person is temporarily banned from participating in any competition or activity while waiting for the results management process to be complete or until the final decision is rendered.

  • Ineligibility. The athlete or other person is not allowed to compete or participate in any other activity, such as training, coaching, or even access to funding due to an ADRV. This period of ineligibility can be for up to 4 years or even life depending on the circumstances of the ADRV.

  • Disqualification of results. The athlete’s results during a particular period, competition or event are invalidated, which comes with forfeiture of any medals, points and prizes.

  • Public Disclosure. The Anti-Doping Organization (ADO) informs the general public of the ADRV.

  • Fines.

Health Consequences

The health consequences to an athlete can include:

  • Physical health. Medications and medical interventions have been developed to treat a particular condition or illness. Not an otherwise healthy athlete. Depending on the substance, the dosage and the consumption frequency, doping products may have particularly negative side effects on health. 

  • Psychological health. Some doping substances may have an impact on the athlete’s mental health. Anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorders or psychosis are direct consequences from doping.


Social Consequences

Some of social consequences of doping include:

  • Damage to reputation and image, which can be permanent with media attention, and future clean performances can be met with skepticism.

  • Damage to future career prospects.

  • Isolation from peers and sport.

  • Damaged relationships with friends and family. 

  • Effects on emotional and psychological well-being. 

  • Loss of standing, fame, respect and credibility. 

Financial Consequences

The financial consequences of doping can include: 

  • Fines that an Anti-Doping Organization (ADO) may have included in their anti-doping rules including costs associated with an Anti-Doping Rule Violation (ADRV).

  • Loss of income/financial support, such as government funding, other forms of financial support and by not participating in the competitions.

  • Loss of financial support due to withdrawal of sponsor.

  • Requirement to reimburse sponsor, if included in the contract.

  • Reimbursement of prize money.

  • Impact of damaged reputation on future career prospects.

Legal Consequences

In addition to the sport, health, social and financial consequences listed above, doping can come with other legal consequences, such as: 

  • Some countries have gone beyond the World Anti-Doping Code and made using a prohibited substance a criminal offence (e.g. Austria, Italy, France). 

  • In some countries, ADRVs related to trafficking, possession or administering a prohibited 
    substance or some substances on the Prohibited List are considered a criminal offence.


What do athletes and athlete support personnel need to know about anti-doping?

Athletes, their support personnel and others who are subject to anti-doping rules all have rights and responsibilities under the World Anti-Doping Code (Code). Part Three of the Code outlines all of the roles and responsibilities of each stakeholder in the anti-doping system.

Athletes’ Rights

“Every athlete has the right to clean sport!”

Ensuring that athletes are aware of their rights and that these rights are respected is vital to the success of clean sport. WADA’s Athlete Committee (now Athlete Council) drafted the Athletes’ Anti-Doping Rights Act (Act). This Act is made up of two parts. Part one sets out rights that are found in the Code and International Standards. Part two sets out recommended athlete rights that are not found in the Code or International Standards but are rights that athletes recommend that Anti-Doping Organizations (ADOs) adopt for best practice. 

Athlete rights outlined in the Code include:

  • Equal opportunities in their pursuit of sport, free of participation by other athletes who dope

  • Equitable and fair testing programs

  • A Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) application process

  • To be heard, to have a fair hearing within a reasonable time by a fair, impartial and operationally independent hearing panel, with a timely reasoned decision specifically including an explanation of the reasons of the decision

  • Right to appeal the hearing decision

  • Any ADO that has jurisdiction over them will be accountable for its action and an athlete shall have the ability to report any compliance issue

  • Ability to report Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs) through an anonymous mechanism and not be subjected to threats or intimidation

  • Receiving anti-doping education

  • Fair handling of their personal information by ADOs in accordance with the International Standard for the Protection of Privacy and Personal Information (ISPPPI) and any local applicable law

  • To pursue damages from another athlete whose actions have damaged that athlete by the commission of an ADRV

  • During the sample collection process, right to:

    • See the identification of the Doping Control Officer (DCO)

    • Request additional information about the sample collection process, about the authority under which it will be carried out and on the type of sample collection

    • Hydrate 

    • Be accompanied by a representative and, if available, an interpreter

    • Request a delay in reporting to the doping control station for valid reasons (International Standard for Testing and Investigations Art. 5.4.4)

    • Request modifications for athletes with impairments (if applicable)

    • Be informed of their rights and responsibilities

    • Receive a copy of the records of the process

    • Have further protections for "protected persons” because of their age or lack of legal capacity

    • Request and attend the B sample analysis (in the case of an Adverse Analytical Finding)

Athletes’ Responsibilities 

Athletes’ rights to clean sport come with corresponding responsibilities, and athletes may be tested in- and out-of-competition, anytime, anywhere and with no advance notice.

Their clean sport responsibilities include (but are not limited to):

  • Complying with the ADO’s Anti-Doping Rules [and relevant policies if applicable] (in line with the World Anti-Doping Code)

  • Being available for sample collection (urine, blood or dried blood spot (DBS)), whether in-competition or out-of-competition

  • Remaining within direct observation of the Doping Control Officer (DCO) or chaperone at all times from notification until the completion of the sample collection process

  • Providing identification upon request during the sample collection process

  • Ensuring that no prohibited substance enters their body and that no prohibited method is used on them

  • Ensuring that any treatment is not prohibited according to the Prohibited List in force and checking this with the prescribing physicians, or directly with the ADO if necessary

  • Applying to the relevant ADO if no alternative permitted treatment is possible and a Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) is required (see the IF or NADO’s TUE application process) [embed link to documents or TUE section]

  • Reporting immediately for sample collection after being notified of being selected for doping control

  • Ensuring the accuracy of the information entered on the Doping Control Form (DCF)

  • Cooperating with ADOs investigating ADRVs

  • Not working with coaches, trainers, physicians or other athlete support personnel who are ineligible on account of an ADRV or who have been criminally convicted or professionally disciplined in relation to doping (see WADA’s Prohibited Association List)[add any ADO specific information/ list]

Athlete Support Personnel Rights

Athlete support personnel and other persons also have rights and responsibilities under the Code. These include:

  • Right to a fair hearing, before an independent hearing panel

  • Right to appeal the hearing decision

  • Rights regarding data protection, according to the ISPPPI and any local applicable law 

Athlete Support Personnel Responsibilities

Athlete support personnel’s responsibilities under the Code include:

  • Using their influence on athlete values and behaviors to foster clean sport behaviors

  • Knowing and complying with all applicable anti-doping policies and rules, including the ADO’s Anti-Doping Rules [and relevant policies if applicable] (in line with the Code)

  • Cooperating with the athlete doping control program

  • Cooperating with ADOs investigating Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs)

  • Informing the relevant IF and/or NADO if they have committed an ADRV in the last 10 years

  • Refraining from possessing a prohibited substance (or a prohibited method)*, administering any such substance or method to an athlete, trafficking, covering up an anti-doping rule violation (ADRV) or other forms of complicity and associating with a person convicted of doping (prohibited association). These are ADRVs applicable to athlete support personnel under Article 2 of the World Anti-Doping Code and Article X of the ADO’s Anti-Doping Rules.

* Unless the athlete support personnel can establish that the possession is consistent with a TUE granted to an athlete or other acceptable justification. Acceptable justification would include, for example, a team doctor carrying prohibited substances for dealing with acute and emergency situations.

ADO Recommendation to Athlete Support Personnel

Here are some ways athlete support personnel can support their athletes in their education on clean sport:

  • Share the Athlete’s Anti-Doping Rights Act with your athletes 

  • Register and take a course suitable to you on the WADA’s ADEL platform (Insert any info/link ADO education platform)

  • Follow the [ADO] pages on Twitter, Facebook and Instagram where the main updates about anti-doping will be published 

  • Contact [ADO email] for any questions you may have



What are the organizations involved in protecting clean sport?

World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)

WADA was established in 1999 as an international independent agency to lead a collaborative worldwide movement for doping-free sport. WADA’s governance and funding are based on equal partnership between the Sport Movement and Governments of the world.

WADA’s primary role is to develop, harmonize and coordinate anti-doping rules and policies across all sports and countries. WADA’s key activities include:

  • Scientific and social science research

  • Education

  • Intelligence & investigations

  • Development of anti-doping capacity and capability

  • Monitoring of compliance with the World Anti-Doping Program.

For more information about WADA, consult:

The Prohibited List


Background: Code Article 18.2 makes it mandatory for ADOs to make educational material on a variety of topics, including the Prohibited List, available on their website. 

How to: Suggested text to accompany the Prohibited List is included below. It is important to ensure that the version of the List you make available on your website is the version currently in force. Remember, the List is updated at least annually. The revised List is typically published by WADA in October and goes into force on 1 January. Given that the List is revised each year and there are consequences if an athlete uses or attempts to use a prohibited substance or a prohibited method because they are referring to an outdated List, it is recommended that ADOs provide a link to WADA’s website rather than publishing a PDF. 

A number of ADOs make a database available to athletes and their support personnel so they can search for substances by brand name. It is important that athletes only use the database for the country where the substance was bought as substances with the same name or for the same purpose may be manufactured differently and while could be safe to take in one country, may not in another.

The below can be copy pasted in a “Prohibited List” section.

The Prohibited List (List) identifies substances and methods prohibited in-competition, at all times (i.e. in- and out-of-competition) and in particular sports. Substances and methods are classified by categories (e.g. steroids, stimulants, masking agents). The List is updated at least annually following an extensive consultation process facilitated by WADA.


It is each athlete’s responsibility to ensure that no prohibited substance enters his/her body and that no prohibited method is used.


[If your sport is covered in P2-beta-blockers of the list, insert a special note about relevant sport-specific prohibited substance(s)]

The List only contains the generic names of the pharmaceutical substances. The List does not contain brand names of the medications, which vary from country to country. Before taking any medication, an athlete should check with the prescribing physician that it does not contain a prohibited substance:


  1. Check that the generic name or International Non-proprietary Name (INN) of any active ingredient is not prohibited (‘in-competition only’ or at ‘all times’). 


  1. Check that the medication does not contain any pharmaceutical substances that would fall within a general category that is prohibited. Many sections of the Prohibited List only contain a few examples and state that other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s) are also prohibited.


  1. Be aware that intravenous infusions and/or injections of more than 50mL per 6-hour period are prohibited, regardless of the status of the substances.


  1. Be aware that since 1 January 2022, all injectable routes of administration will now be prohibited for glucocorticoids during the in-competition period.

  2.  Oral administration of glucocorticoids remains prohibited in-competition. Other routes of administration are not prohibited when used within the manufacturer’s licensed doses and therapeutic indications.


  1. Be aware that as of 1 January 2024, the narcotic tramadol will be prohibited in-competition.


  1. If you have any doubt, contact your IF/NADO.


An athlete will only be allowed to use a prohibited substance for medical reasons if the athlete has a valid Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) for the substance that the IF/NADO has granted or recognized [embed for example a link to ADO’s TUE section of the website ].



Useful Online Databases


The following National Anti-Doping Organizations make online country-specific drug reference databases available for checking the status of a medication bought in that country.


  • GlobalDRO (for Australia, Canada, UK, USA, Switzerland, Japan and New Zealand)

  • A list of other country-specific databased can be found here.

Note: WADA and WDA (or NADO if you are referring to a list of databases that your ADO is not using) do not take responsibility for the information provided on these websites. 

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